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by John Brian Shannon | November 24, 2014
Germany, a thriving economic powerhouse under the Chancellorship of Angela Merkel, is also a renewable energy superstar and a country that is loaded with potential.
Lately, the Germans have taken a break from aggressively adding renewable energy to their grid by ending a lucrative feed-in-tariff (FiT) subsidy program that ramped-up the adoption of solar, wind and biomass installations across the country.
Not that these so-called ‘lucrative’ subsidies approached anywhere near what fossil fuel and nuclear power plant operators receive and have received since the postwar period began, as all energy in Germany (like most countries) is heavily subsidized by taxpayers but only the (much smaller) renewable energy subsidies get the headlines. Go figure.
Chancellor Angela Merkel made the courageous decision to accelerate the shutdown Germany’s nuclear power plants in the aftermath of the Fukushima disaster in 2011 after stress tests of German nuclear power plants showed safety concerns existed within their nuclear fleet. She ushered in meaningful FiT subsidies to speed the German Energiewende program towards its goal of transition to renewable energy and greater energy efficiency — which had received only sporadic subsidies prior to Merkel.
Snapshot of the German Energiewende program
- A popular Germany-only program to move towards a highly industrialized, sustainable green economy
- Full phase-out of nuclear energy by 2022
- 80-95% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2050
- Minimum of 80% renewables in the power sector
- 50% increase in energy efficiency by 2050
Germany’s utility companies haven’t seen change like this since WWII. After a century of serving conventionally-generated electrical power to a captive electricity market — approximately 1/3 of all German electricity is now generated via renewable energy if you also include biomass and hydro-power. That’s historic change by any standard.
Although solar panel outputs are lower during the winter months, over the late spring and summer of 2014 renewable energy generated more than 75% of total demand on many of those days. Not bad, for 5 years of relatively minor renewable energy subsidy euros provided by a (now ended) Feed-in-Tariff!
Another benefit of the switch to renewable energy was the added billions of euros of economic activity generated annually by European solar panel and wind manufacturing companies like Vestas, SolarWorld, Siemens, ABB, and the jobs created for hundreds of SME renewable energy installation companies in the country.
Exports of German solar panels and wind turbines went through the stratosphere — once Germany proved to the world that solar and wind could replace lost nuclear power generation capacity at a much lower cost than building new, multi-billion euro, nuclear or coal-fired power plants with their massive footprint on the land and their obscene water usage levels.
For Germany, installing their own solar, wind and biomass power plants proved to the world that large-scale renewable energy could add huge capacity to a nation’s electrical grid and that different types of renewable energy could work together to balance the over-hyped ‘intermittency problem’ of renewable energy.
It turns out that in Germany, during the long, hot days of summer when solar panels are putting out their maximum power the wind actually tapers off, but at night the wind blows at a very reliable rate. Karmic bonus! That about covers the summer months.
During the winter months in Germany, the wind blows day and night, adding significant amounts of reliable power to the national grid.
And now, all of that renewable energy capacity is operating without FiT subsidy — quite unlike the coal, nuclear, and oil and gas power generation in the country which require huge and ongoing subsidies every day of the year to continue operations. That’s every day since 1946, meine Freunde!
Also a factor with nuclear and coal-fired power plants are the massive healthcare spending to combat the adverse health effects of fossil fuel burning/air pollution on humans and animals, on the agriculture sector, and the hugely expensive security infrastructure necessary to counter the potential theft of nuclear materials, to defeat possible nuclear terrorism and to prevent nuclear proliferation.
While the rest of Europe (with the exception of notables like Norway, Sweden and Luxembourg) wallowed in recession or near-recession since 2008, the German economic powerhouse not only set global export records year-on-year, it bailed-out numerous other EU economies like Greece, Spain, Portugal, Italy and others, and began an unprecedented domestic renewable energy program. And now, Germany is an electricity net exporter.
That’s heady stuff, even for this industrious nation of 82 million.
Where to next?
Not only has Germany added many TeraWatt hours (TWh) of clean, renewable energy to its electrical grid to replace lost nuclear power generation, it is now an electricity net exporter — raking in millions of euros per year at present — and make that an electricity exporting superpower if they ever decide to revive their now defunct Feed-in-Tariff subsidy for renewable energy.
Replacing coal with renewable energy in Germany:
If Germany revived the previous FiT regime for 5 years, *all lignite-fired (brown coal) electrical power generation* could be eliminated within 10 years.
If Germany revived the previous FiT regime for 10 years, *all coal-fired electrical power generation* (not just lignite coal) could be eliminated within 10 years.
Replacing coal with renewable energy in Germany would save millions of Germans, Polish, Swiss, Austrians and others living downwind of German smokestacks from breathing toxic lignite-fired air pollution. Think of the health care savings and the taxes that must support it, especially as their demographic ages. Some people believe that the health care savings alone could far exceed the cost of any FiT subsidy.
Not only that, but as a result of leaving coal behind, historic buildings, concrete bridges and roadways would require less maintenance to repair the spalling caused by the acid rain from coal burning. Additionally, Germany would save the millions of litres of water consumed annually by the coal industry.
Replacing coal with renewable energy in Germany would create thousands more jobs for solar, wind, and biomass manufacturing and construction, the agriculture sector would begin to show ever-improving crop outputs and importantly, leave clean air to breathe for tourists, expats and German citizens!
A note about (renewable energy) Hybrid power plants
An energy policy stroke of genius for Germany could come in the form of a new subsidy (a FiT or other type of subsidy) that could be offered to promote the installation of Hybrid power plants — whereby 30% of electricity generated at a given power plant site would come from solar and the balance could come from any combination of wind, biomass, or hydro-electric generation. (30% solar + 70% various renewable = 100% of total per site output)
As long as all of the electrical power generation at such a site is of the renewable energy variety and it all works to balance the intermittency of solar power, then it should receive automatic approval for the (hereby proposed) Energiewende Hybrid Power Plant subsidy.
When all the different types of renewable energy work in complementary fashion on the same site, energy synergy (the holy grail of the renewable energy industry) will be attained.
More jobs, billions of euros worth of electricity exports to the European countries bordering Germany, lower health care spending, less environmental damage and better agricultural outputs — all at a lower subsidy level than coal and nuclear have enjoyed every year since 1946 — are precisely why Germans should renew their commitment to renewable energy.
Seriously, what’s not to like?
- Energiewende: energy transition in Germany (The Guardian)
- Sustainable Energy has Merit in Germany (JohnBrianShannon.com)
- German solar ambitions at risk from cuts to subsidies (The Guardian)
- German energy giant E.ON to focus on renewables (Deutsche Welle)
- Hybrid Energy Systems Key To Future Of Renewable Energy (CleanTechnica)
- Fraunhofer ISE Electricity production from solar and wind in Germany in 2014 (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE)
by John Brian Shannon | September 1, 2014
Let’s hear it for efficiency! Not that anyone is surprised — but when Germany decides to act, as it did this week in the fight against the Islamic State (or IS, ISIS, or ISIL, if you prefer) — the phrase ‘killing two birds with one stone’ doesn’t even begin to describe the various layers of hurt that Germany has begun to lay on the Islamic State.
In one stroke, Germany has doubled the Islamic State’s troubles in northern Iraq via Germany’s decision to arm the Iraqi Kurds which govern Iraq’s three northernmost provinces.
Ms. Merkel and top ministers decided Sunday to deliver thousands of machine guns, as well as antitank missiles and armored vehicles, to Kurdish forces battling ISIS in northern Iraq.
The deliveries, from existing German Army stocks, and worth an estimated 70 million euros, or almost $92 million, will take place in stages over the coming weeks, the Defense Ministry said. — via the New York Times
Suddenly IS must now contend with a two-front-war, instead of merely avoiding the US Air Force bombing campaign which is a lethal, but strictly one-front-war type of operation.
As any veteran battlefield commander will tell you, “a one-front-war is a living hell, a two-front-war is Hell’s definition of Hell.”
Now the Islamic State has big trouble and it knows it. Suddenly, it cannot move at will throughout the region wreaking havoc or taking entire cities without first carefully considering troop levels and capabilities along its eastern front. At least a third and maybe as much as a half of its manpower, equipment, and materiel must now be devoted to their eastern flank — but no more than that, or they will find themselves light in other areas that they now hold or are attempting to gain.
In a ground war, having sufficient numbers of troops, ammunition, medical assistance and food/water to carry the battle forward, is everything. Finding yourself ‘light’ means that you have a 50/50 chance of winning any given battle, and in the case of ambush it means that you’re soon dead or a prisoner.
All of the Islamic State’s successes thus far have come because they were fighting against an indecisive Iraqi Army and civilians, and by using asymmetric warfare techniques against them it made for battlefield success after success. To experienced military observers it’s small wonder that ISIS gained all that it has. In fact, we wonder why they didn’t bother to take more territory while they had the luxury of fighting the war on their terms, in the asymmetric warfare style that has worked so well for them.
That’s all over now, however. Germany has changed the course of this conflict with the stroke of a pen and now the IS must fight a mainly conventional war. Not to say that IS fighters can’t still find opportunities to use asymmetric warfare in their crimes of opportunity and attain stunning (but most-likely smaller) successes — their wide-field operations are now permanently curtailed.
The tide has begun to turn against the Islamic State
Instead of individual groups of IS fighters caught in heinous acts being bombed by American fighter-bomber jets, Germany has transformed the battlefield into a much less mobile war for the Islamic State, one where their fighters will be pulled back into ever-smaller zones in the country.
To win in war, you need; 1) better weapons, or; 2) better-trained and more-dedicated troops, or; 3) you need better thinking
If France or the UK do for Syria, what Germany has done for the Kurds, we will see astonishing progress against the terror threat known as the Islamic State.
And if the U.S. would do the same for Turkey, it would be the end of the Islamic State as a fighting force by the end of the year.
Using better thinking — that’s how to win a war
Congratulations to Germany!
- Iraq Crisis: Arming the Kurds (BBC News)
- Germany to arm and train Iraq’s Kurdish fighters (The Telegraph)
- Kurdish fighters defeat Al Qaida militia at key weapons depot near Syria-Turkey border [Oct, 2013] (World Tribune)